With this article, you can learn about cornea diseases and their treatment. The cornea is the curved transparent layer of the eye. It is located in the forefront of the eye. It is a non-vascular tissue. It has a great role in vision. It protects the eye from external factors and focuses the light. Corneal transparency may be impaired as a result of infection, genetic origin, a subsequent trauma, congenital or after surgery. If the transparency of the cornea is impaired, the quality of vision decreases. In case of corneal transparency deterioration, complaints such as stinging, increased sensitivity to light, burning and pain are experienced.
Symptoms of Corneal Diseases
The cornea has different functions. Therefore, different symptoms can be observed in corneal diseases. Some of those:
• Stinging sensation in the eye
• Light sensitivity
• Blurred vision
• Drop in the eyelid
• Eye redness
• Eye watering
• Frequent blinking
• Inability to open the eyelids
• Eye itching
• Inability to open eyes in sunny weathers
• Eye pain
Cornea Examination Methods
The brightness of the corneal surface, corneal transparency and corneal injuries can be evaluated with local light. Corneal sensitivity can be evaluated with a cotton swab. Ophthalmologists use some devices to evaluate the function and morphology of the cornea.
Some examinations performed in the cornea examination:
Biomicroscopy: It provides binocular examination of the cornea. It is one of the most commonly used examination methods. In this method, the magnification of the biomicroscope is achieved by sending light beams of different thickness from different angles.
Topography: Topography is used for topographic analysis of the anterior surface of the cornea.
Keratometry: It is used before intraocular lens and contact lens implantation. The refractive power of the cornea is measured with keratometry.
Esteziometry: Used in the evaluation of corneal sensitivity.
Specular Microscopy: Shows the endothelial cell structure and number.
Pachymetry: Corneal thickness is measured with pachymetry.
Staining Examination of the Cornea: With this examination, defects in the cornea are seen with a solution called “floresseine and rose bengal”.
Common Corneal Diseases
• Degenerative diseases of the cornea
• Dry eye
• Corneal scars
• Herpetic keratitis
• Corneal infections
Keratoconus is a disease seen with the sharpening and thinning of the cornea with astigmatism and myopia. This disease usually begins in adolescence. However, it is usually noticed in the 20s. Keratoconus progresses between the ages of 20 and 40. It enters a stable period after the age of 40s. If keratoconus is not treated, it can cause serious vision problems.
Some causes of keratoconus disease:
• Allergic eye diseases where the eye is frequently rubbed
• Using hard contact lenses
• Genetic predisposition
Symptoms of Keratoconus Disease
• Mild eye irritation
• Double vision
• Eye burning and stinging
• Progressive myopia and astigmatism
• Sensitivity to light
• Inability to see clearly even when wearing glasses
• Seeing rings around lights,
• The appearance of ghost images, especially while driving.
What is Corneal Transplant?
The surface of the cornea can regenerate itself. However, their interior cannot be renewed. Therefore, diseases in this section may cause permanent vision loss. If corneal diseases cannot be treated, corneal transplantation can be performed. Cornea transplantation is the combination of the transparent part of the cornea with a new tissue taken from another person.
Contact us to learn more about corneal disesase and treatments.